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AD 600-699
A.D. 601 . This year Pope Gregory sent the pall to Archbishop
Augustine in Britain, with very many learned doctors to assist
him; and Bishop Paulinus converted Edwin, king of the
Northumbrians, to baptism.

A.D. 603 . This year Aeden, king of the Scots, fought with the
Dalreathians, and with Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians, at
Theakstone; where he lost almost all his army. Theobald also,
brother of Ethelfrith, with his whole armament, was slain. None
of the Scottish kings durst afterwards bring an army against this
nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the army thither.

((A.D. 603 . This year Aethan, King of the Scots, fought against
the Dalreods and against Ethelfrith, king of the North-humbrians,
at Daegsanstane [Dawston?], and they slew almost all his army.
There Theodbald, Ethelfrith's brother, was slain with all his
band. Since then no king of the Scots has dared to lead an army
against this nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the enemy

A.D. 604 . This year Augustine consecrated two bishops, Mellitus
and Justus. Mellitus he sent to preach baptism to the East-
Saxons. Their king was called Seabert, the son of Ricola,
Ethelbert's sister, whom Ethelbert placed there as king.
Ethelbert also gave Mellitus the bishopric of London; and to
Justus he gave the bishopric of Rochester, which is twenty-four
miles from Canterbury.

((A.D. 604 . This year Augustine consecrated two bishops,
Mellitus and Justus. He sent Mellitus to preach baptism to the
East-Saxons, whose king was called Sebert, son of Ricole, the
sister of Ethelbert, and whom Ethelbert had there appointed king.
And Ethelbert gave Mellitus a bishop's see in London, and to
Justus he gave Rochester, which is twenty-four miles from

A.D. 606 . This year died Gregory; about ten years since he sent
us baptism. His father was called Gordianus, and his mother

A.D. 607 . This year Ceolwulf fought with the South-Saxons. And
Ethelfrith led his army to Chester; where he slew an innumerable
host of the Welsh; and so was fulfilled the prophecy of
Augustine, wherein he saith "If the Welsh will not have peace
with us, they shall perish at the hands of the Saxons." There
were also slain two hundred priests, (18) who came thither to
pray for the army of the Welsh. Their leader was called
Brocmail, who with some fifty men escaped thence.

A.D. 611 . This year Cynegils succeeded to the government in
Wessex, and held it one and thirty winters. Cynegils was the son
of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric.

A.D. 614 . This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought at Bampton, and
slew two thousand and forty-six of the Welsh.

A.D. 616 . This year died Ethelbert, king of Kent, the first of
English kings that received baptism: he was the son of Ermenric.
He reigned fifty-six winters, and was succeeded by his son
Eadbald. And in this same year had elapsed from the beginning of
the world five thousand six hundred and eighteen winters. This
Eadbald renounced his baptism, and lived in a heathen manner; so
that he took to wife the relict of his father. Then Laurentius,
who was archbishop in Kent, meant to depart southward over sea,
and abandon everything. But there came to him in the night the
apostle Peter, and severely chastised him, (19) because he would
so desert the flock of God. And he charged him to go to the
king, and teach him the right belief. And he did so; and the
king returned to the right belief. In this king's days the same
Laurentius, who was archbishop in Kent after Augustine, departed
this life on the second of February, and was buried near
Augustine. The holy Augustine in his lifetime invested him
bishop, to the end that the church of Christ, which yet was new
in England, should at no time after his decease be without an
archbishop. After him Mellitus, who was first Bishop of London,
succeeded to the archbishopric. The people of London, where
Mellitus was before, were then heathens: and within five winters
of this time, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus died. To him
succeeded Justus, who was Bishop of Rochester, whereto he
consecrated Romanus bishop.

((A.D. 616 . In that time Laurentius was archbishop, and for the
sorrowfulness which he had on account of the king's unbelief he
was minded to forsake this country entirely, and go over sea; but
St. Peter the apostle scourged him sorely one night, because he
wished thus to forsake the flock of God, and commanded him to
teach boldly the true faith to the king; and he did so, and the
king turned to the right (faith). In the days of this same king,
Eadbald, this Laurentius died. The holy Augustine, while yet in
sound health, ordained him bishop, in order that the community of
Christ, which was yet new in England, should not after his
decease be at any time without an archbishop. After him
Mellitus, who had been previously Bishop of London, succeeded to
the archbishopric. And within five years of the decease of
Laurentius, while Eadbald still reigned, Mellitus departed to

A.D. 617 . This year was Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians,
slain by Redwald, king of the East-Angles; and Edwin, the son of
Ella, having succeeded to the kingdom, subdued all Britain,
except the men of Kent alone, and drove out the Ethelings, the
sons of Ethelfrith, namely, Enfrid. Oswald, Oswy, Oslac, Oswood.
Oslaf, and Offa.

A.D. 624 . This year died Archbishop Mellitus.

A.D. 625 . This year Paulinus was invested bishop of the
Northumbrians, by Archbishop Justus, on the twelfth day before
the calends of August.

((A.D. 625 . This year Archbishop Justus consecrated Paulinus
bishop of the North-humbrians.))

A.D. 626 . This year came Eamer from Cwichelm, king of the West-
Saxons, with a design to assassinate King Edwin; but he killed
Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded the king. The same
night a daughter was born to Edwin, whose name was Eanfleda.
Then promised the king to Paulinus, that he would devote his
daughter to God, if he would procure at the hand of God, that he
might destroy his enemy, who had sent the assassin to him. He
then advanced against the West-Saxons with an army, felled on the
spot five kings, and slew many of their men. This year Eanfleda,
the daughter of King Edwin, was baptized, on the holy eve of
Pentecost. And the king within twelve months was baptized, at
Easter, with all his people. Easter was then on the twelfth of
April. This was done at York, where he had ordered a church to
be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter.
There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he
afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone. This
year Penda began to reign; and reigned thirty winters. He had
seen fifty winters when he began to reign. Penda was the son of
Wybba, Wybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba,
Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of
Offa, Offa of Wearmund, Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley of Woden.

A.D. 627 . This year was King Edwin baptized at Easter, with all
his people, by Paulinus, who also preached baptism in Lindsey,
where the first person who believed was a certain rich man, of
the name of Bleek, with all his people. At this time Honorius
succeeded Boniface in the papacy, and sent hither to Paulinus the
pall; and Archbishop Justus having departed this life on the
tenth of November, Honorius was consecrated at Lincoln Archbishop
of Canterbury by Paulinus; and Pope Honorius sent him the pall.
And he sent an injunction to the Scots, that they should return
to the right celebration of Easter.

((A.D. 627 . This year, at Easter, Paulinus baptized Edwin king
of the North-humbrians, with his people; and earlier within the
same year, at Pentecost, he had baptized Eanfled, daughter of the
same king.))

A.D. 628 . This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought with Penda at
Cirencester, and afterwards entered into a treaty there.

A.D. 632 . This year was Orpwald baptized.

A.D. 633 . This year King Edwin was slain by Cadwalla and Penda,
on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October. He reigned
seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After
this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the
Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga, the
relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius
received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of
Rochester, where he continued to his death.

A.D. 634 . This year Osric, whom Paulinus baptized, succeeded to
the government of Deira. He was the son of Elfric, the uncle of
Edwin. And to Bernicia succeeded Eanfrith, son of Ethelfrith.
This year also Bishop Birinus first preached baptism to the West-
Saxons, under King Cynegils. The said Birinus went thither by
the command of Pope Honorius; and he was bishop there to the end
of his life. Oswald also this year succeeded to the government
of the Northumbrians, and reigned nine winters. The ninth year
was assigned to him on account of the heathenism in which those
lived who reigned that one year betwixt him and Edwin.

A.D. 635 . This year King Cynegils was baptized by Bishop Birinus
at Dorchester; and Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was his

A.D. 636 . This year King Cwichelm was baptized at Dorchester,
and died the same year. Bishop Felix also preached to the East-
Angles the belief of Christ.

A.D. 639 . This year Birinus baptized King Cuthred at Dorchester,
and received him as his son.

A.D. 640 . This year died Eadbald, King of Kent, after a reign of
twenty-five winters. He had two sons, Ermenred and Erkenbert;
and Erkenbert reigned there after his father. He overturned all
the idols in the kingdom, and first of English kings appointed a
fast before Easter. His daughter was called Ercongota -- holy
damsel of an illustrious sire! whose mother was Sexburga, the
daughter of Anna, king of the East-Angles. Ermenred also begat
two sons, who were afterwards martyred by Thunnor.

A.D. 642 . This year Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth
day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney. His holiness
and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions
throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at
Barnburgh. The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy his
brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and
reigned two less than thirty years.

A.D. 643 . This year Kenwal succeeded to the kingdom of the West-
Saxons, and held it one and thirty winters. This Kenwal ordered
the old (20) church at Winchester to be built in the name of St.
Peter. He was the son of Cynegils.

A.D. 644 . This year died at Rochester, on the tenth of October,
Paulinus, who was first Archbishop at York, and afterwards at
Rochester. He was bishop nineteen winters, two months, and one
and twenty days. This year the son of Oswy's uncle (Oswin), the
son of Osric, assumed the government of Deira, and reigned seven

A.D. 645 . This year King Kenwal was driven from his dominion by King Penda.

A.D. 646 . This year King Kenwal was baptized.

A.D. 648 . This year Kenwal gave his relation Cuthred three
thousand hides of land by Ashdown. Cuthred was the son of
Cwichelm, Cwichelm of Cynegils.

A.D. 650 . This year Egelbert, from Gaul, after Birinus the
Romish bishop, obtained the bishopric of the West-Saxons.

((A.D. 650 . This year Birinus the bishop died, and Agilbert the
Frenchman was ordained.))

A.D. 651 . This year King Oswin was slain, on the twentieth day
of August; and within twelve nights afterwards died Bishop Aidan,
on the thirty-first of August.

A.D. 652 . This year Kenwal fought at Bradford by the Avon.

A.D. 653 . This year, the Middle-Angles under alderman Peada
received the right belief.

A.D. 654 . This year King Anna was slain, and Botolph began to
build that minster at Icanhoe. This year also died Archbishop
Honorius, on the thirtieth of September.

A.D. 655 . This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty
royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them
was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The
Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the
world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty
winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of
the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy,
brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster
to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they
did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted; because there is a
well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and
wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk,
whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and
him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and
rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned
no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide.
This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to
Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.

A.D. 656 . This year was Peada slain; and Wulfhere, son of
Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians. In his time waxed
the abbey of Medhamsted very rich, which his brother had begun.
The king loved it much, for the love of his brother Peada, and for
the love of his wed-brother Oswy, and for the love of Saxulf the
abbot. He said, therefore, that he would dignify and honour it
by the counsel of his brothers, Ethelred and Merwal; and by the
counsel of his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha; and by the
counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit; and by the
counsel of all his peers, learned and lewd, that in his kingdom
were. And he so did. Then sent the king after the abbot, that
he should immediately come to him. And he so did. Then said the
king to the abbot: "Beloved Saxulf, I have sent after thee for
the good of my soul; and I will plainly tell thee for why. My
brother Peada and my beloved friend Oswy began a minster, for the
love of Christ and St. Peter: but my brother, as Christ willed,
is departed from this life; I will therefore intreat thee,
beloved friend, that they earnestly proceed on their work; and I
will find thee thereto gold and silver, land and possessions, and
all that thereto behoveth." Then went the abbot home, and began
to work. So he sped, as Christ permitted him; so that in a few
years was that minster ready. Then, when the king heard say
that, he was very glad; and bade men send through all the nation,
after all his thanes; after the archbishop, and after bishops:
and after his earls; and after all those that loved God; that
they should come to him. And he fixed the day when men should
hallow the minster. And when they were hallowing the minster,
there was the king, Wulfere, and his brother Ethelred, and his
sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha. And the minster was hallowed
by Archbishop Deusdedit of Canterbury; and the Bishop of
Rochester, Ithamar; and the Bishop of London, who was called
Wina; and the Bishop of the Mercians, whose name was Jeruman;
and Bishop Tuda. And there was Wilfrid, priest, that after was
bishop; and there were all his thanes that were in his kingdom.
When the minster was hallowed, in the name of St. Peter, and St.
Paul, and St. Andrew, then stood up the king before all his
thanes, and said with a loud voice: "Thanks be to the high
almighty God for this worship that here is done; and I will this
day glorify Christ and St. Peter, and I will that you all confirm
my words. -- I Wulfere give to-day to St. Peter, and the Abbot
Saxulf, and the monks of the minster, these lands, and these
waters, and meres, and fens, and weirs, and all the lands that
thereabout lye, that are of my kingdom, freely, so that no man
have there any ingress, but the abbot and the monks. This is the
gift. From Medhamsted to Northborough; and so to the place that
is called Foleys; and so all the fen, right to Ashdike; and from
Ashdike to the place called Fethermouth; and so in a right line
ten miles long to Ugdike; and so to Ragwell; and from Ragwell
five miles to the main river that goeth to Elm and to Wisbeach;
and so about three miles to Trokenholt; and from Trokenholt right
through all the fen to Derworth; that is twenty miles long; and
so to Great Cross; and from Great Cross through a clear water
called Bradney; and thence six miles to Paxlade; and so forth
through all the meres and fens that lye toward Huntingdon-port;
and the meres and lakes Shelfermere and Wittlesey mere, and all
the others that thereabout lye; with land and with houses that
are on the east side of Shelfermere; thence all the fens to
Medhamsted; from Medhamsted all to Welmsford; from Welmsford
to Clive; thence to Easton; from Easton to Stamford; from Stamford
as the water runneth to the aforesaid Northborough." -- These are
the lands and the fens that the king gave unto St. Peter's
minster. -- Then quoth the king: "It is little -- this gift --
but I will that they hold it so royally and so freely, that there
be taken there from neither gild nor gable, but for the monks
alone. Thus I will free this minster; that it be not subject
except to Rome alone; and hither I will that we seek St. Peter,
all that to Rome cannot go." During these words the abbot
desired that he would gant him his request. And the king granted
it. "I have here (said he) some good monks that would lead their
life in retirement, if they wist where. Now here is an island,
that is called Ankerig; and I will request, that we may there
build a minster to the honour of St. Mary; that they may dwell
there who will lead their lives in peace and tranquillity." Then
answered the king, and quoth thus: "Beloved Saxulf, not that only
which thou desirest, but all things that I know thou desirest in
our Lord's behalf, so I approve, and grant. And I bid thee,
brother Ethelred, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, for
the release of your souls, that you be witnesses, and that you
subscribe it with your fingers. And I pray all that come after
me, be they my sons, be they my brethren, or kings that come
after me, that our gift may stand; as they would be partakers of
the life everlasting, and as they would avoid everlasting
punishment. Whoso lesseneth our gift, or the gift of other good
men, may the heavenly porter lessen him in the kingdom of heaven;
and whoso advanceth it, may the heavenly porter advance him in
the kingdom of heaven." These are the witnesses that were there,
and that subscribed it with their fingers on the cross of Christ,
and confirmed it with their tongues. That was, first the king,
Wulfere, who confirmed it first with his word, and afterwards
wrote with his finger on the cross of Christ, saying thus: "I
Wulfere, king, in the presence of kings, and of earls, and of
captains, and of thanes, the witnesses of my gift, before the
Archbishop Deus-dedit, I confirm it with the cross of Christ."
(+) -- "And I Oswy, king of the Northumbrians, the friend of this
minster, and oú the Abbot Saxulf, commend it with the cross of
Christ." (+) -- "And I Sighere, king, ratify it with the cross of
Christ." (+) -- "And I Sibbi, king, subscribe it with the cross
of Christ." (+) -- "And I Ethelred, the king's brother, granted
the same with the cross of Christ." (+) -- "And we, the king's
sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, approve it." -- "And I
Archbishop of Canterbury, Deus-dedit, ratify it." -- Then
confirmed it all the others that were there with the cross of
Christ (+): namely, Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester; Wina, Bishop of
London; Jeruman, Bishop of the Mercians; and Tuda, bishop; and
Wilfrid, priest, who was afterwards bishop; and Eoppa, priest,
whom the king, Wulfere, sent to preach christianity in the Isle
of Wight; and Saxulf, abbot; and Immine, alderman, and Edbert,
alderman, and Herefrith, alderman, and Wilbert, alderman, and
Abo, alderman; Ethelbald, Brord, Wilbert, Elmund, Frethegis. 
These, and many others that were there, the king's most loyal
subjects, confirmed it all. This charter was written after our
Lord's Nativity 664 -- the seventh year of King Wulfere -- the
ninth year of Archbishop Deus-dedir. Then they laid God's curse,
and the curse of all saints, and all christian folks, on
whosoever undid anything that there was done. "So be it," saith
all. "Amen." -- When this thing was done, then sent the king to
Rome to the Pope Vitalianus that then was, and desired, that he
would ratify with his writ and with his blessing, all this
aforesaid thing. And the pope then sent his writ, thus saying:
"I Vitalianus, pope, grant thee, King Wulfere, and Deus-dedit,
archbishop, and Abbot Saxulf, all the things that you desire. 
And I forbid, that any king, or any man, have any ingress, but
the abbot alone; nor shall he be Subject to any man, except the
Pope of Rome and the Archbishop of Canterbury. If any one
breaketh anything of this, St. Peter with his sword destroy him.
Whosoever holdeth it, St. Peter with heaven's key undo him the
kingdom of heaven." -- Thus was the minster of Medhamsted
begun, that was afterwards called Peter-borough. Afterwards came
another archbishop to Canterbury, who was called Theodorus; a
very good man and wise; and held his synod with his bishops and
with his clerk. There was Wilfrid, bishop of the Mercians,
deprived of his bishopric; and Saxulf, abbot, was there chosen
bishop; and Cuthbald, monk of the same minster, was chosen abbot.
This synod was holden after our Lord's Nativity six hundred and
seventy-three winters.

A.D. 658 . This year Kenwal fought with the Welsh at Pen, and
pursued them to the Parret. This battle was fought after his
return from East-Anglia, where he was three years in exile. 
Penda had driven him thither and deprived him of his kingdom,
because he had discarded his sister.

A.D. 660 . This year Bishop Egelbert departed from Kenwal; and
Wina held the bishopric three years. And Egbert accepted the
bishopric of Paris, in Gaul, by the Seine.

A.D. 661 . This year, at Easter, Kenwal fought at Pontesbury; and
Wulfere, the son of Penda, pursued him as far as Ashdown. 
Cuthred, the son of Cwichelm, and King Kenbert, died in one year.
Into the Isle of Wight also Wulfere, the son of Penda,
penetrated, and transferred the inhabitants to Ethelwald, king of
the South-Saxons, because Wulfere adopted him in baptism. And
Eoppa, a mass-priest, by command of Wilfrid and King Wulfere, was
the first of men who brought baptism to the people of the Isle of

A.D. 664 . This year the sun was eclipsed, on the eleventh of
May; and Erkenbert, King of Kent, having died, Egbert his son
succeeded to the kingdom. Colman with his companions this year
returned to his own country. This same year there was a great
plague in the island Britain, in which died Bishop Tuda, who was
buried at Wayleigh -- Chad and Wilferth were consecrated -- And
Archbishop Deus-dedit died.

A.D. 667 . This year Oswy and Egbert sent Wighard, a priest, to
Rome, that he might be consecrated there Archbishop of
Canterbury; but he died as soon as he came thither.

((A.D. 667 . This year Wighard went to Rome, even as King Oswy,
and Egbert had sent him.))

A.D. 668 . This year Theodore was consecrated archbishop, and
sent into Britain.

A.D. 669 . This year King Egbert gave to Bass, a mass-priest,
Reculver -- to build a minster upon.

A.D. 670 . This year died Oswy, King of Northumberland, on the
fifteenth day before the calends of March; and Egferth his son
reigned after him. Lothere, the nephew of Bishop Egelbert,
succeeded to the bishopric over the land of the West-Saxons, and
held it seven years. He was consecrated by Archbishop Theodore.
Oswy was the son of Ethelfrith, Ethelfrith of Ethelric, Ethelric
of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

A.D. 671 . This year happened that great destruction among the

A.D. 672 . This year died King Cenwal; and Sexburga his queen
held the government one year after him.

A.D. 673 . This year died Egbert, King of Kent; and the same year
there was a synod at Hertford; and St. Etheldritha began that
monastery at Ely.

A.D. 674 . This year Escwin succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex.
He was the son of Cenfus, Cenfus of Cenferth, Cenferth of
Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric of

A.D. 675 . This year Wulfere, the son of Penda, and Escwin, the
son of Cenfus, fought at Bedwin. The same year died Wulfere, and
Ethelred succeeded to the government. In his time sent he to
Rome Bishop Wilfrid to the pope that then was, called Agatho, and
told him by word and by letter, how his brothers Peada and
Wulfere, and the Abbot Saxulf, had wrought a minster, called
Medhamsted; and that they had freed it, against king and against
bishop, from every service; and he besought him that he would
confirm it with his writ and with his blessing. And the pope
sent then his writ to England, thus saying: "I Agatho, Pope of
Rome, greet well the worthy Ethelred, king of the Mercians, and
the Archbishop Theodorus of Canterbury, and Saxulf, the bishop of
the Mercians, who before was abbot, and all the abbots that are
in England; God's greeting and my blessing. I have heard the
petition of King Ethelred, and of the Archbishop Theodorus, and
of the Bishop Saxulf, and of the Abbot Cuthbald; and I will it,
that it in all wise be as you have spoken it. And I ordain, in
behalf of God, and of St. Peter, and of all saints, and of every
hooded head, that neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor any man
whatever, have any claim, or gable, or gild, or levy, or take any
service of any kind, from the abbey of Medhamsted. I command
also, that no shire-bishop be so bold as to hold an ordination or
consecration within this abbacy, except the abbot intreat him,
nor have there any claim to proxies, or synodals, or anything
whatever of any kind. And I will, that the abbot be holden for
legate of Rome over all that island; and whatever abbot is there
chosen by the monks that he be consecrated by the Archbishop of
Canterbury. I will and decree, that, whatever man may have made
a vow to go to Rome, and cannot perform it, either from
infirmity, or for his lord's need, or from poverty, or from any
other necessity of any kind whatever, whereby he cannot come
thither, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, he
may come to that minster of Medhamsted, and have the same
forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbot, and of the
monks, that he should have if he went to Rome. Now bid I thee,
brother Theodorus, that thou let it be proclaimed through all
England, that a synod be gathered, and this writ be read and
observed. Also I tell thee, Bishop Saxulf, that, as thou
desirest it, that the minster be free, so I forbid thee, and all
the bishops that after thee come, from Christ and from all his
saints, that ye have no demand from that minster, except so much
as the abbot will. Now will I say in a word, that, whoso holdeth
this writ and this decree, then be he ever dwelling with God
Almighty in the kingdom of heaven. And whoso breaketh it, then
be he excommunicated, and thrust down with Judas, and with all
the devils in hell, except he come to repentance. Amen!" This
writ sent the Pope Agatho, and a hundred and twenty-five bishops,
by Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, to England. This was done after
our Lord's Nativity 680, the sixth year of King Ethelred. Then
the king commanded the Archbishop Theodorus, that he should
appoint a general Wittenmoot at the place called Hatfield. When
they were there collected, then he allowed the letter to be read
that the pope sent thither; and all ratified and confirmed it.
Then said the king: "All things that my brother Peada, and my
brother Wulfere, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, gave
and granted to St. Peter and the abbot, these I will may stand;
and I will in my day increase it, for their souls and for my
soul. Now give I St. Peter to-day into his minster, Medhamsted,
these lands, and all that thereto lyeth; that is, Bredon,
Repings, Cadney, Swineshead, Hanbury, Lodeshall, Scuffanhall,
Cosford, Stratford, Wattleburn, Lushgard, Ethelhun-island,
Bardney. These lands I give St. Peter just as freely as I
possessed them myself; and so, that none of my successors take
anything therefrom. Whoso doeth it, have he the curse of the
Pope of Rome, and the curse of all bishops, and of all those that
are witnesses here. And this I confirm with the token of
Christ." (+) "I Theodorus, Archbishop of Canterbury, am witness
to this charter of Medhamsted; and I ratify it with my hand, and
I excommunicate all that break anything thereof; and I bless all
that hold it." (+) "I Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, am witness to
this charter; and I ratify this same curse." (+) "I Saxulf, who
was first abbot, and now am bishop, I give my curse, and that of
all my successors, to those who break this." -- "I Ostritha,
Ethelred's queen, confirm it." -- "I Adrian, legate, ratify it." 
-- "I Putta, Bishop of Rochester, subscribe it." -- "I Waldhere,
Bishop of London, confirm it." -- "I Cuthbald, abbot, ratify it;
so that, whoso breaketh it, have he the cursing of all bishops
and of all christian folk. Amen."

A.D. 676 . This year, in which Hedda succeeded to his bishopric,
Escwin died; and Centwin obtained the government of the West-
Saxons. Centwin was the son of Cynegils, Cynegils of Ceolwulf.
Ethelred, king of the Mercians, in the meantime, overran the land
of Kent.

A.D. 678 . This year appeared the comet-star in August, and shone
every morning, during three months, like a sunbeam. Bishop
Wilfrid being driven from his bishopric by King Everth, two
bishops were consecrated in his stead, Bosa over the Deirians,
and Eata over the Bernicians. About the same time also Eadhed
was consecrated bishop over the people of Lindsey, being the
first in that division.

A.D. 679 . This year Elwin was slain, by the river Trent, on the
spot where Everth and Ethelred fought. This year also died St.
Etheldritha; and the monastery of Coldingiham was destroyed by
fire from heaven.

A.D. 680 . This year Archbishop Theodore appointed a synod at
Hatfield; because he was desirous of rectifying the belief of
Christ; and the same year died Hilda, Abbess of Whitby.

A.D. 681 . This year Trumbert was consecrated Bishop of Hexham,
and Trumwin bishop of the Picts; for they were at that time
subject to this country. This year also Centwin pursued the
Britons to the sea.

A.D. 684 . This year Everth sent an army against the Scots, under
the command of his alderman, Bright, who lamentably plundered and
burned the churches of God.

A.D. 685 . This year King Everth commanded Cuthbert to be
consecrated a bishop; and Archbishop Theodore, on the first day
of Easter, consecrated him at York Bishop of Hexham; for Trumbert
had been deprived of that see. The same year Everth was slain by
the north sea, and a large army with him, on the thirteenth day
before the calends of June. He continued king fifteen winters;
and his brother Elfrith succeeded him in the government. Everth
was the son of Oswy. Oswy of Ethelferth, Ethelferth of Ethelric,
Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. About this time Ceadwall began to
struggle for a kingdom. Ceadwall was the son of Kenbert, Kenbert
of Chad, Chad of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric,
Cynric of Cerdic. Mull, who was afterwards consigned to the
flames in Kent, was the brother of Ceadwall. The same year died
Lothhere, King of Kent; and John was consecrated Bishop of
Hexham, where he remained till Wilferth was restored, when John
was translated to York on the death of Bishop Bosa. Wilferth his
priest was afterwards consecrated Bishop of York, and John
retired to his monastery (21) in the woods of Delta. This year
there was in Britain a bloody rain, and milk and butter were
turned to blood.

((A.D. 685 . And in this same year Cuthbert was consecrated
Bishop of Hexham by Archbishop Theodore at York, because Bishop
Tumbert had been driven from the bishopric.))

A.D. 686 . This year Ceadwall and his brother Mull spread
devastation in Kent and the Isle of Wight. This same Ceadwall
gave to St. Peter's minster, at Medhamsted, Hook; which is
situated in an island called Egborough. Egbald at this time was
abbot, who was the third after Saxulf; and Theodore was
archbishop in Kent.

A.D. 687 . This year was Mull consigned to the flames in Kent,
and twelve other men with him; after which, in the same year,
Ceadwall overran the kingdom of Kent.

A.D. 688 . This year Ceadwall went to Rome, and received baptism
at the hands of Sergius the pope, who gave him the name of Peter;
but in the course of seven nights afterwards, on the twelfth day
before the calends of May, he died in his crisom-cloths, and was
buried in the church of St. Peter. To him succeeded Ina in the
kingdom of Wessex, and reigned thirty-seven winters. He founded
the monastery of Glastonbury; after which he went to Rome, and
continued there to the end of his life. Ina was the son of
Cenred, Cenred of Ceolwald; Ceolwald was the brother of Cynegils;
and both were the sons of Cuthwin, who was the son of Ceawlin;
Ceawlin was the son of Cynric, and Cynric of Cerdic.

((A.D. 688 . This year King Caedwalla went to Rome, and received
baptism of Pope Sergius, and he gave him the name of Peter, and
in about seven days afterwards, on the twelfth before the kalends
of May, while he was yet in his baptismal garments, he died: and
he was buried in St. Peter's church. And Ina succeeded to the
kingdom of the West-Saxons after him, and he reigned twenty-seven

A.D. 690 . This year Archbishop Theodore, who had been bishop
twenty-two winters, departed this life, (22) and was buried
within the city of Canterbury. Bertwald, who before this was
abbot of Reculver, on the calends of July succeeded him in the
see; which was ere this filled by Romish bishops, but henceforth
with English. Then were there two kings in Kent, Wihtred and

A.D. 693 . This year was Bertwald consecrated archbishop by
Godwin, bishop of the Gauls, on the fifth day before the nones of
July; about which time died Gifmund, who was Bishop of Rochester;
and Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Tobias in his stead. This
year also Dryhtelm (23) retired from the world.

A.D. 694 . This year the people of Kent covenanted with Ina, and
gave him 30,000 pounds in friendship, because they had burned his
brother Mull. Wihtred, who succeeded to the kingdom of Kent, and
held it thirty-three winters, was the son of Egbert, Egbert of
Erkenbert, Erkenbert of Eadbald, Eadbald of Ethelbert. And as
soon as he was king, he ordained a great council to meet in the
place that is called Bapchild; in which presided Wihtred, King of
Kent, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Brihtwald, and Bishop Tobias
of Rochester; and with him were collected abbots and abbesses,
and many wise men, all to consult about the advantage of God's
churches that are in Kent. Now began the king to speak, and
said, "I will that all the minsters and the churches, that were
given and bequeathed to the worship of God in the days of
believing kings, my predecessors, and in the days of my relations
of King Ethelbert and of those that followed him -- shall so
remain to the worship of God, and stand fast for evermore. For I
Wihtred, earthly king, urged on by the heavenly king, and with
the spirit of righteousness annealed, have of our progenitors
learned this, that no layman should have any right to possess
himself of any church or of any of the things that belong to the
church. And, therefore, strongly and truly, we set and decree,
and in the name of Almighty God, and of all saints, we forbid all
our succeeding kings, and aldermen, and all lawmen, ever, any
lordship over churches, and over all their appurtenances, which I
or my elders in old days have given for a perpetual inheritance
to the glory of Christ and our Lady St. Mary, and the holy
apostles. And look! when it happeneth, that bishop, or abbot,
or abbess, depart from this life, be it told the archbishop, and
with his counsel and injunction be chosen such as be worthy. And
the life of him, that shall be chosen to so holy a thing, let the
archbishop examine, and his cleanness; and in no wise be chosen
any one, or to so holy a thing consecrated, without the
archbishop's counsel. Kings shall appoint earls, and aldermen,
sheriffs, and judges; but the archbishop shall consult and
provide for God's flock: bishops, and abbots, and abbesses, and
priests, and deacons, he shall choose and appoint; and also
sanctify and confirm with good precepts and example, lest that
any of God's flock go astray and perish --"

A.D. 697 . This year the Southumbrians slew Ostritha, the queen
of Ethelred, the sister of Everth.

A.D. 699 . This year the Picts slew Alderman Burt.


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