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A.D. 702-50
A.D. 702 . This year Kenred assumed the government of the

A.D. 703 . This year died Bishop Hedda, having held the see of
Winchester twenty-seven winters.

A.D. 704 . This year Ethelred, the son of Penda, King of Mercia,
entered into a monastic life, having reigned twenty-nine winters;
and Cenred succeeded to the government.

A.D. 705 . This year died Ealdferth, king of the Northumbrians,
on the nineteenth day before the calends of January, at
Driffield; and was succeeded by his son Osred. Bishop Saxulf
also died the same year.

A.D. 709 . This year died Aldhelm, who was bishop by Westwood.
The land of the West-Saxons was divided into two bishoprics in
the first days of Bishop Daniel; who held one whilst Aldhelm held
the other. Before this it was only one. Forthere succeeded to
Aldhelm; and Ceolred succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia. And
Cenred went to Rome; and Offa with him. And Cenred was there to
the end of his life. The same year died Bishop Wilferth, at
Oundle, but his body was carried to Ripon. He was the bishop
whom King Everth compelled to go to Rome.

A.D. 710 . This year Acca, priest of Wilferth, succeeded to the
bishopric that Wilferth ere held; and Alderman Bertfrith fought
with the Picts between Heugh and Carau. Ina also, and Nun his
relative, fought with Grant, king of the Welsh; and the same year
Hibbald was slain.

A.D. 714 . This year died Guthlac the holy, and King Pepin.

A.D. 715 . This year Ina and Ceolred fought at Wanborough; (24)
and King Dagobert departed this life.

A.D. 716 . This year Osred, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
near the southern borders. He reigned eleven winters after
Ealdferth. Cenred then succeeded to the government, and held it
two years; then Osric, who held it eleven years. This same year
died Ceolred, king of the Mercians. His body lies at Lichfield;
but that of Ethelred, the son of Penda, at Bardney. Ethelbald
then succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia, and held it one and
forty winters. Ethelbald was the son of Alwy, Alwy of Eawa, Eawa
of Webba, whose genealogy is already written. The venerable
Egbert about this time converted the monks of Iona to the right
faith, in the regulation of Easter, and the ecclesiastical

A.D. 718 . This year died Ingild, the brother of Ina. Cwenburga
and Cuthburga were their sisters. Cuthburga reared the monastery
of Wimburn; and, though given in marriage to Ealdferth, King of
Northumberland, they parted during their lives.

A.D. 721 . This year Bishop Daniel went to Rome; and the same
year Ina slew Cynewulf, the etheling. This year also died the
holy Bishop John; who was bishop thirty-three years, and eight
months, and thirteen days. His body now resteth at Beverley.

A.D. 722 . This year Queen Ethelburga destroyed Taunton, which
Ina had formerly built; Ealdbert wandered a wretched exile in
Surrey and Sussex; and Ina fought with the South-Saxons.

A.D. 725 . This year died Wihtred, King of Kent, on the ninth day
before the calends of May, after a reign of thirty-two winters.
His pedigree is above; and he was succeeded by Eadbert. Ina this
year also fought with the South-Saxons, and slew Ealdbert, the
etheling, whom he had before driven into exile.

A.D. 727 . This year died Tobias, Bishop of Rochester: and
Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Aldulf bishop in his stead.

A.D. 728 . This year (25) Ina went to Rome, and there gave up the
ghost. He was succeeded in the kingdom of Wessex by Ethelhard
his relative, who held it fourteen years; but he fought this same
year with Oswald the etheling. Oswald was the son of Ethelbald,
Ethelbald of Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin. 

A.D. 729 . This year appeared the comet-star, and St. Egbert died
in Iona. This year also died the etheling Oswald; and Osric was
slain, who was eleven winters king of Northumberland; to which
kingdom Ceolwulf succeeded, and held it eight years. The said
Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of
Leodwald, Leodwald of Egwald, Egwald of Ealdhelm, Ealdhelm of
Occa, Occa of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. Archbishop Bertwald died this
year on the ides of January. He was bishop thirty-seven winters,
and six months, and fourteen days. The same year Tatwine, who
was before a priest at Bredon in Mercia, was consecrated
archbishop by Daniel Bishop of Winchester, Ingwald Bishop of
London, Aldwin Bishop of Lichfield, and Aldulf Bishop of
Rochester, on the tenth day of June. He enjoyed the
archbishopric about three years.

((A.D. 729 . And the same year Osric died; he was king eleven
years; then Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom, and held it eight

A.D. 733 . This year Ethelbald took Somerton; the sun was
eclipsed; and Acca was driven from his bishopric.

A.D. 734 . This year was the moon as if covered with blood; and
Archbishop Tatwine and Bede departed this life; and Egbert was
consecrated bishop.

A.D. 735 . This year Bishop Egbert received the pall at Rome.

A.D. 736 . This year Archbishop Nothelm received the pall from
the bishop of the Romans.

A.D. 737 . This year Bishop Forthere and Queen Frithogitha went
to Rome; and King Ceolwulf received the clerical tonsure, giving
his kingdom to Edbert, his uncle's son: who reigned one and
twenty winters. Bishop Ethelwold and Acca died this year, and
Cynewulf was consecrated bishop. The same year also Ethelbald
ravaged the land of the Northumbrians.

A.D. 738 . This year Eadbery, the son of Eata the son of
Leodwald, succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom, and held it one
and twenty winters. Archbishop Egbert, the son of Eata, was his
brother. They both rest under one porch in the city of York.

A.D. 740 . This year died King Ethelhard; and Cuthred, his
relative, succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom, which he held
fourteen winters, during which time he fought many hard battles
with Ethelbald, king of the Mercians. On the death of Archbishop
Nothelm, Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop, and Dunn, Bishop of
Rochester. This year York was on fire.

A.D. 742 . This year there was a large synod assembled at
Cliff's-Hoo; and there was Ethelbald, king of Mercia, with
Archbishop Cuthbert, and many other wise men.

A.D. 743 . This year Ethelbald, king of Mercia, and Cuthred, king
of the West-Saxons, fought with the Welsh.

A.D. 744 . This year Daniel resigned the see of Winchester; to
which Hunferth was promoted. The stars went swiftly shooting;
and Wilferth the younger, who had been thirty winters Bishop of
York, died on the third day before the calends of May.

A.D. 745 . This year died Daniel. Forty-three winters had then
elapsed since he received the episcopal function.

A.D. 746 . This year was King Selred slain.

A.D. 748 . This year was slain Cynric, etheling of the West-
Saxons; Edbert, King of Kent, died; and Ethelbert, son of King
Wihtred, succeeded to the kingdom.

A.D. 750 . This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, fought
with the proud chief Ethelhun.

A.D. 752 . This year, the twelfth of his reign, Cuthred, king of
the West-Saxons, fought at Burford (27) with Ethelbald, king of
the Mercians, and put him to flight.

A.D. 753 . This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, fought
against the Welsh.

A.D. 754 . This year died Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons; and
Sebright, his relative, succeeded to the kingdom, which he held
one year; Cyneard succeeded Humferth in the see of Winchester;
and Canterbury was this year on fire.

A.D. 755 . This year Cynewulf, with the consent of the West-Saxon
council, deprived Sebright, his relative, for unrighteous deeds,
of his kingdom, except Hampshire; which he retained, until he
slew the alderman who remained the longest with him. Then
Cynewulf drove him to the forest of Andred, where he remained,
until a swain stabbed him at Privett, and revenged the alderman,
Cumbra. The same Cynewulf fought many hard battles with the
Welsh; and, about one and thirty winters after he had the
kingdom, he was desirous of expelling a prince called Cyneard,
who was the brother of Sebright. But he having understood that
the king was gone, thinly attended, on a visit to a lady at
Merton, (28) rode after him, and beset him therein; surrounding
the town without, ere the attendants of the king were aware of
him. When the king found this, he went out of doors, and
defended himself with courage; till, having looked on the
etheling, he rushed out upon him, and wounded him severely. Then
were they all fighting against the king, until they had slain
him. As soon as the king's thanes in the lady's bower heard the
tumult, they ran to the spot, whoever was then ready. The
etheling immediately offered them life and rewards; which none of
them would accept, but continued fighting together against him,
till they all lay dead, except one British hostage, and he was
severely wounded. When the king's thanes that were behind heard
in the morning that the king was slain, they rode to the spot,
Osric his alderman, and Wiverth his thane, and the men that he
had left behind; and they met the etheling at the town, where the
king lay slain. The gates, however, were locked against them,
which they attempted to force; but he promised them their own
choice of money and land, if they would grant him the kingdom;
reminding them, that their relatives were already with him, who
would never desert him. To which they answered, that no relative
could be dearer to them than their lord, and that they would
never follow his murderer. Then they besought their relatives to
depart from him, safe and sound. They replied, that the same
request was made to their comrades that were formerly with the
king; "And we are as regardless of the result," they rejoined,
"as our comrades who with the king were slain." Then they
continued fighting at the gates, till they rushed in, and slew
the etheling and all the men that were with him; except one, who
was the godson of the alderman, and whose life he spared, though
he was often wounded. This same Cynewulf reigned one and thirty
winters. His body lies at Winchester, and that of the etheling
at Axminster. Their paternal pedigree goeth in a direct line to
Cerdic. The same year Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, was slain
at Seckington; and his body lies at Repton. He reigned one and
forty years; and Bernred then succeeded to the kingdom, which he
held but a little while, and unprosperously; for King Offa the
same year put him to flight, and assumed the government; which he
held nine and thirty winters. His son Everth held it a hundred
and forty days. Offa was the son of Thingferth, Thingferth of
Enwulf, Enwulf of Osmod, Osmod of Eawa, Eawa of Webba, Webba of
Creoda, Creoda of Cenwald, Cenwald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel,
Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of
Wermund, Wermund of Witley, Witley of Woden.

((A.D. 755 . This year Cynewulf deprived King Sigebert of his
kingdom; and Sigebert's brother, Cynehard by name, slew Cynewulf
at Merton; and he reigned thirty-one years. And in the same year
Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, was slain at Repton. And Offa
succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians, Bernred being driven

A.D. 757 . This year Eadbert, king of the Northumbrians, received
the tonsure, and his son Osulf the kingdom; which he held one
year. Him his own domestics slew on the ninth day before the
kalends of August.

A.D. 758 . This year died Archbishop Cuthbert. He held the
archbishopric eighteen years.

A.D. 759 . This year Bregowin was invested archbishop at
Michaelmas, and continued four years. Mull Ethelwold this year
succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom, held it six winters, and
then resigned it.

A.D. 760 . This year died Ethelbert, King of Kent, who was the
son of King Wihtred, and also of Ceolwulf.

A.D. 761 . This year was the severe winter; and Mull, king of the
Northumbrians, slew Oswin at Edwin's-Cliff, on the eighth day
before the ides of August.

A.D. 762 . This year died Archbishop Bregowin.

A.D. 763 . This year Eanbert was invested archbishop, on the
fortieth day over mid-winter; and Frithwald, Bishop of Whitern,
died on the nones of May. He was consecrated at York, on the
eighteenth day before the calends of September, in the sixth year
of the reign of Ceolwulf, and was bishop nine and twenty winters.
Then was Petwin consecrated Bishop of Whitern at Adlingfleet, on
the sixteenth day before the calends of August.

A.D. 764 . This year Archbishop Eanbert received the pall.

A.D. 765 . This year Alred succeeded to the kingdom of the
Northumbrians, and reigned eight winters.

A.D. 766 . This year died Archbishop Egbert at York, on the
thirteenth day before the calends of December, who was bishop
thirty-six winters; and Frithbert at Hexham, who was bishop there
thirty-four winters. Ethelbert was consecrated to York, and
Elmund to Hexham.

A.D. 768 . This year died King Eadbert, the son of Eata, on the
fourteenth day before the calends of September.

A.D. 772 . This year died Bishop Mildred.

A.D. 774 . This year the Northumbrians banished their king,
Alred, from York at Easter-tide; and chose Ethelred, the son of
Mull, for their lord, who reigned four winters. This year also
appeared in the heavens a red crucifix, after sunset; the
Mercians and the men of Kent fought at Otford; and wonderful
serpents were seen in the land of the South-Saxons.

A.D. 775 . This year Cynewulf and Offa fought near Bensington,
and Offa took possession of the town. In the days of this king,
Offa, there was an abbot at Medhamsted, called Beonna; who, with
the consent of all the monks of the minster, let to farm, to
Alderman Cuthbert, ten copyhold lands at Swineshead, with leasow
and with meadow, and with all the appurtenances; provided that
the said Cuthbert gave the said abbot fifty pounds therefore, and
each year entertainment for one night, or thirty shillings in
money; (29) provided also, that after his decease the said lands
should revert to the monastery. The king, Offa, and King Everth,
and Archbishop Hibbert, and Bishop Ceolwulf, and Bishop Inwona,
and Abbot Beonna, and many other bishops, and abbots, and rich
men, were witnesses to this. In the days of this same Offa was
an alderman, of the name of Brorda, who requested the king for
his sake to free his own monastery, called Woking, because he
would give it to Medhamsted and St. Peter, and the abbot that
then was, whose name was Pusa. Pusa succeeded Beonna; and the
king loved him much. And the king freed the monastery of Woking,
against king, against bishop, against earl, and against all men'
so that no man should have any claim there, except St. Peter and
the abbot. This was done at the king's town called 

A.D. 776 . This year died Bishop Petwin, on the thirteenth day
before the calends of October, having been bishop fourteen
winters. The same year Ethelbert was consecrated Bishop of
Whitern, at York, on the seventeenth day before the calends of

A.D. 778 . This year Ethelbald and Herbert slew three high-
sheriffs -- Eldulf, the son of Bosa, at Coniscliff; Cynewulf and
Eggo at Helathyrn -- on the eleventh day before the calends of
April. Then Elwald, having banished Ethelred from his territory,
seized on his kingdom, and reigned ten winters.

A.D. 780 . This year a battle was fought between the Old-Saxons
and the Franks; and the high-sheriffs of Northumbria committed to
the flames Alderman Bern at Silton, on the ninth day before the
calends of January. The same year Archbishop Ethelbert died at
York, and Eanbald was consecrated in his stead; Bishop Cynewulf
retired to Holy-island; Elmund, Bishop of Hexham, died on the
seventh day before the ides of September, and Tilbert was
consecrated in his stead, on the sixth day before the nones of
October; Hibbald was consecrated Bishop of Holy-island at
Sockbury; and King Elwald sent to Rome for a pall in behoof of 
Archbishop Eanbald.

A.D. 782 . This year died Werburga, Queen of Ceolred, and Bishop
Cynewulf, in Holy-island; and the same year there was a synod at

A.D. 784 . This year Cyneard slew King Cynewulf, and was slain
himself, and eighty-four men with him. Then Bertric undertook
the government of the West-Saxons, and reigned sixteen years. 
His body is deposited at Wareham; and his pedigree goeth in a
direct line to Cerdic. At this time reigned Elmund king in Kent,
the father of Egbert; and Egbert was the father of Athulf.

A.D. 785 . This year died Bothwin, Abbot of Ripon, and a
litigious synod was holden at Chalk-hythe; Archbishop Eanbert
resigned some part of his bishopric, Hibbert was appointed bishop
by King Offa, and Everth was consecrated king. In the meantime
legates were sent from Rome to England by Pope Adrian, to renew
the blessings of faith and peace which St. Gregory sent us by the
mission of Bishop Augustine, and they were received with every
mark of honour and respect.

A.D. 787 . This year King Bertric took Edburga the daughter of
Offa to wife. And in his days came first three ships of the
Northmen from the land of robbers. The reve (30) then rode
thereto, and would drive them to the king's town; for he knew not
what they were; and there was he slain. These were the first
ships of the Danish men that sought the land of the English

A.D. 788 . This year there was a synod assembled at Fingall in
Northumberland, on the fourth day before the nones of September;
and Abbot Albert departed this life.

A.D. 789 . This year Elwald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
by Siga, on the eleventh day before the calends of October; and a
heavenly light was often seen on the spot where he was slain. He
was buried in the church of Hexham; and Osred, the son of Alred,
who was his nephew, succeeded him in the government. This ),ear
there was a synod assembled at Acley.

A.D. 790 . This year Archbishop Eanbert died, and Abbot Ethelherd
was chosen archbishop the same year. Osred, king of the
Northumbrians, was betrayed and banished from his kingdom, and
Ethelred, the son of Ethelwald, succeeded him.

A.D. 791 . This year Baldulf was consecrated Bishop of Whitern,
on the sixteenth day before the calends of August, by Archbishop
Eanbald and Bishop Ethelbert.

A.D. 792 . This year Offa, King of Mercia, commanded that King
Ethelbert should be beheaded; and Osred, who had been king of the
Northumbrians, returning home after his exile, was apprehended
and slain, on the eighteenth day before the calends of October.
His body is deposited at Tinemouth. Ethelred this year, on the
third day before the calends of October, took unto himself a new
wife, whose name was Elfleda.

A.D. 793 . This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of
the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these
were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and
whirlwinds, and fiery, dragons flying across the firmament. 
These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and
not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in
the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made
lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine
and slaughter. Siga died on the eighth day before the calends of

A.D. 794 . This year died Pope Adrian; and also Offa, King of
Mercia, on the fourth day before the ides of August, after he had
reigned forty winters. Ethelred, king of the Northumbrians, was
slain by his own people, on the thirteenth day before the calends
of May; in consequence of which, Bishops Ceolwulf and Eadbald
retired from the land. Everth took to the government of Mercia,
and died the same year. Eadbert, whose other name was Pryn,
obtained the kingdom of Kent; and Alderman Ethelherd died on the
calends of August. In the meantime, the heathen armies spread
devastation among the Northumbrians, and plundered the monastery
of King Everth at the mouth of the Wear. There, however, some of
their leaders were slain; and some of their ships also were
shattered to pieces by the violence of the weather; many of the
crew were drowned; and some, who escaped alive to the shore, were
soon dispatched at the mouth of the river.

A.D. 795 . This year was the moon eclipsed, between cock-crowing
and dawn, (31) on the fifth day before the calends of April; and
Erdulf succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom on the second before
the ides of May. He was afterwards consecrated and raised to his
throne, at York, on the seventh day before the calends of June,
by Archbishop Eanbald, and Bishops Ethelbert, Hibbald, and

A.D. 796 . This year died Archbishop Eanbald, on the fourth day
before the ides of August; and his body is deposited at York. 
The same year also died Bishop Ceolwulf; and another Eanbald was
consecrated to the see of the former, on the nineteenth day
before the calends of September. About the same time Cynewulf,
King of Mercia, made inroads upon the inhabitants of Kent as far
as the marsh; and the Mercians seized Edbert Pryn, their king,
led him bound into Mercia, and suffered men to pick out his eyes,
and cut off his hands. (32) And Ethelard, Archbishop of
Canterbury, held a synod, wherein he ratified and confirmed, by
command of Pope Leo, all things concerning God's monasteries that
were fixed in Witgar's days, and in other king's days, saying
thus: "I Ethelard, the humble Archbishop of Canterbury, with the
unanimous concurrence of the whole synod, and of all the
congregations of all the minsters, to which in former days
freedom was given by faithful men, in God's name and by his
terrible judgment do decree, as I have command from Pope Leo,
that henceforth none dare to choose them lords from lewd men over
God's inheritance; but, as it is in the writ that the pope has
given, or holy men have settled, our fathers and our teachers,
concerning holy minsters, so they continue untainted without any
resistance. If there is any man that will not observe this
decree of God, of our pope, and of us, but overlooketh it, and
holdeth it for nought, let them know, that they shall give an
account before the judgment-seat of God. And I Ethelard,
archbishop, with twelve bishops, and with three and twenty
abbots, this same with the rood-token of Christ confirm and

((A.D. 796 . This year Offa, king of the Mercians, died on the
fourth before the kalends of August; he reigned forty years.))

A.D. 797 . This year the Romans cut out the tongue of Pope Leo,
put out his eyes, and drove him from his see; but soon after, by
the assistance of God, he could see and speak, and became pope as
he was before. Eanbald also received the pall on the sixth day
before the ides of September, and Bishop Ethelherd died on the
third before the calends of November.

A.D. 798 . This year a severe battle was fought in the
Northumbrian territory, during Lent, on the fourth day before the
nones of April, at Whalley; wherein Alric, the son of Herbert,
was slain, and many others with him.

A.D. 799 . This year Archbishop Ethelbert, and Cynbert, Bishop of
Wessex, went to Rome. In the meantime Bishop Alfun died at
Sudbury, and was buried at Dunwich. After him Tidfrith was
elected to the see; and Siric, king of the East Saxons, went to
Rome. In this year the body of Witburga was found entire, and
free from decay, at Dercham, after a lapse of five and fifty
years from the period of her decease.


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